We always welcome questions from our customers & enjoy sharing what we learn. We've put together a few of the questions we are regularly asked for your information below.

No, because the volume of water is so low, the thermal mass relative to your hands is tiny.
Therefore, washing your hands in cold water does not feel cold.

Yes, the logic of using lots of water to wash your hands is incorrect. Its all about surface area and the physics of water. Once your hands are wet they can't get any wetter.
It's then down to the effective replenish rate of water onto the hands to wash off the soap.

Approximately 1385 million cubic kilometres of water are available on earth. 97,5% of the water is salt water that can be found mainly in oceans. Only 2,5% is freshwater that can be used by plants, animals and humans. However, nearly 90% of this freshwater is not readily available, because it is centred in icecaps of the Antarctic. Only 0.26% of the water on the planet  is available for humans and other organisms, this is about 93.000 cubic kilometres. Only 0.014% of this water can be used for drinking water production, as most of it is stored in clouds or in the ground.

Increases in world population means increased water use and less availability on a per capita basis. In 1989 there was some 9,000 cubic metres of freshwater per person available for human use. By 2000, this had dropped to 7,800 cubic metres and it is expected to plummet to 5,100 cubic metres per person by 2025, when the global population is projected to reach 8 billion.

People already use over half the world’s accessible freshwater now, and may use nearly three-quarters by 2025. Over the twentieth century, the world annual water use has grown from about 300 km3 to about 2,100 km3.

Each country has a different equivalent use per person.

The annual per capita water use for each part of the world:
– North Americans use 1,280 cubic meters
– Europeans and Australians use 694 cubic meters
– Asians use 535 cubic meters
– South Americans use 311 cubic meters
– Africans use 186 cubic meters

Water is used for three main purposes; agricultural uses, industrial uses and domestic uses. Each country uses a different amount of its available water for these three main purposes. In percentages, the global use for the three main purposes is divided up as follows:

– Agriculture (mostly irrigation) = 69%
– Industry = 23%
– Domestic use (household water = drinking water, sanitation) = 8%

Current global water withdrawals for irrigation are estimated at about 2,000 to 2,555 cubic kilometres per year. The annual water volume used by industry is estimated 975 km3.

The water that humans use for drinking water preparation is mainly freshwater. But freshwater availability has become a problem over the years, as only 0.014% of the water on earth is readily available freshwater for drinking purposes. In some countries they are trying to solve this problem by withdrawal and desalination of seawater. Right now, 0.1% of the water that is used by humans is desalinated seawater.

Global consumption of water is doubling every 20 years, more that twice the rate of human population growth. According to the various water research agencies, the world water use is expected to triple in the next 50 years.
Almost half of the world’s population lives in 263 international river basins, but two-thirds of these basins have no treaties to share water. Because of this, wars over water are extremely likely to happen in the future, when water becomes scarcer. Disputes could also consist over aquifers in time.

The world’s population of six billion people is already using about 54 per cent of all the accessible freshwater found in rivers, lakes and underground aquifers. By 2025 the human share will be 70 percent, based on the population increase. If per capita consumption of water resources continues to rise at its current rate, humankind could be using over 90 per cent of all available freshwater within 25 years.

Water scarcity is caused by dry climates, drought, desiccation, or water stress. Water scarcity caused by drought has killed over 24,000 people a year since the 1970’s. Over 40% of the world’s population now experiences water shortages that threaten their agriculture and industry and also their personal health. Today over a billion people do not have access to clean drinking water and by 2025 at least 3 billion people in 90 different countries are expected to face severe water stress. The main problem that causes this is not a shortage of water, but the wasteful and unsustainable use of available water supplies.

69% Agriculture (mostly irrigation)

23% Industry

8% Domestic use (household water = drinking water, sanitation)

No, the temperature of the water does not appear to affect microbe removal; however, warmer water may cause more skin irritation and is more environmentally costly.